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By Healthtrip Team Blog Published on - 21 October - 2022

Some common types of congenital heart defects

Congenital heart defects mean that a child or an infant is born with heart disease. The earlier diagnosis was considered difficult but today with advanced medical technology and diagnostic facilities doctors can diagnose a congenital heart defect even when the child is in the womb. Some of the common congenital heart diseases include:

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Aortic stenosis: Aortic stenosis or aortic valve stenosis is a very rare and serious type of congenital heart defect in which the aortic valve that is responsible for blood flow from the left ventricle to the main artery becomes narrowed. As a result, there is a lot of pressure on the heart to pump blood in order to transport the blood.

Ebstein's anomaly: It is a heart condition in which the main artery or the aorta becomes narrowed and affects blood flow and blood pressure. This type of heart defect is a little different from aortic stenosis as it usually occurs in combination with other heart defects such as ventricular septal defects. Such heart conditions require medical treatment immediately after birth.

Pulmonary valve stenosis: This type of heart defect occurs in the pulmonary valve that controls the blood flow from the heart to the lungs. The narrowing of the pulmonary valve makes it difficult for the heart to pump and affects the blood flow greatly.

Septal defect: Septal defect is a heart condition in which the abnormality occurs between the septum of the main chambers of the heart. Septal defects are usually of two types known as an atrial septal defect which occurs in the two chambers of the atrium that is the left atrium and the right atrium and ventricular septal defect occurs in the ventricles, namely the right ventricle and left ventricle.

Patent ductus arteriosus: It is a heart condition that occurs during the development of the child in the womb. The blood vessel called ductus arteriosus connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta so that the blood can flow easily from the lungs to the aorta. In this extra blood comes to the lungs that force the lungs and the heart both.

Causes of congenital heart disease

The heart consists of four chambers two on the right and two on the left and each chamber has valves that help in the unidirectional flow of blood. Congenital birth defects usually include the effect on the heart chambers, arteries, and valves. Also whenever there is an altered connection of blood flow that causes a hole in the wall of the heart chambers making it one of the prime reasons for congenital heart defects. In such conditions, the oxygen-rich blood and the oxygen-deficient blood gets mixed which causes severe life-threatening conditions.

Complex congenital heart disease symptoms:

Complex congenital defects or disorders usually get noticed either during the ultrasound or soon after birth. Also, there are conditions in which heart disease gets unnoticed until the child begins to show warning signs and symptoms of a heart condition. Some of the heart conditions include:

  • Rapid breathing
  • Shortness of breath. swelling in hands, ankles, and feet
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Inability to do any strenuous work
  • Blue lips, tongue, and fingernails.
  • Poor weight gain
  • Constant crying due to uneasiness
  • Fainting during playing or exercising

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