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Comprehensive Guide to Colorectal Cancer Treatment in India

09 Dec, 2023

Blog author iconHealthtrip Team

Colorectal cancer in India is on the rise, posing a significant health concern. Access to quality healthcare for this condition can be challenging in the country. Patients and families often face uncertainty in navigating the complex healthcare system.

Amidst the fear and uncertainty, clear and reliable information is crucial. Colorectal cancer disparities and complexities can be overwhelming for those affected. Empowering individuals with knowledge becomes paramount in this situation.

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This guide provides a comprehensive resource on colorectal cancer treatment in India. Explore the treatment option and latest advancements, top healthcare institutions, and renowned oncologists. With this information, you can make informed decisions on your treatment journey.

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer, also known as colon cancer or rectal cancer, is a type of malignancy that develops in the colon (large intestine) or rectum. It typically begins as small, benign growths called polyps, which can eventually turn cancerous if left untreated.

Calculate Treatment Cost, Check Symptoms, Explore Doctors and Hospitals

Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer:

1. Rectal Bleeding: Detect blood in your stool or on toilet paper? It might be a sign of colorectal cancer.

2. Bowel Habit Changes: Persistent diarrhea, constipation, or a feeling of incomplete evacuation could indicate colorectal cancer.

3. Abdominal Discomfort: Persistent abdominal pain, cramps, or a sense of fullness may warrant investigation for colorectal cancer.

4. Unexplained Weight Loss: Significant, unintended weight loss without lifestyle changes could be a red flag.

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5. Fatigue: Ongoing fatigue or weakness not relieved by rest should be taken seriously in the context of colorectal cancer.

6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia: Watch for symptoms like weakness and pale skin, which may signal underlying colorectal issues.

7. Stool Shape Changes: Noticeable changes in stool shape or size, especially narrowing, should be noted.

8. Gas and Cramps: Frequent gas, cramps, or persistent abdominal discomfort require attention.

9. Family History: If colorectal cancer runs in your family, regular screening is crucial for early detection.

Healthcare infrastructure in India:

India boasts a robust healthcare infrastructure that combines state-of-the-art technology with world-class medical expertise. The country has numerous specialized cancer centers and hospitals dedicated to providing advanced colorectal cancer treatments.

Top Hospitals for Colorectal Cancer Treatment:

1. Aster Medcity (Kochi)

Hospital Banner

  • Location: Kuttisahib Rd, South Chittoor, Ernakulam, Kerala 682027, India
  • Established Year - 2013

Hospital Overview:

  • Aster Medcity is a 670-bed quaternary care facility in Kochi, Kerala, India.
  • Centers of Excellence: The hospital specializes in several medical specialties, including:
  • Approach: Aster Medcity combines talent and technology to provide holistic treatment with a multidisciplinary approach.
  • Accreditations: The hospital has been accredited by JCI and NABH (National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers). It has also received NABH certification for Nursing Excellence and Green OT Certification.
  • Robotic Surgery: The Aster Minimal Access Robotic Surgery (MARS) program has successfully performed over 1200 robotic-assisted surgeries.
  • Clinical Programs: Notable clinical programs include Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PMR), Bone Marrow Transplant, Liver Transplant, Kidney Transplant, Parkinson and Movement Disorders treatment including Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), Spine Surgery, Epilepsy Surgery, and Cardiac Electrophysiology.
  • ECMO Facilities: The hospital offers full-fledged Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) facilities for critically ill patients.
  • Aster Medcity specializes in a wide spectrum of medical specialties, including Cardiac Sciences, Oncology, Neurosciences, Organ Transplantation, and more, offering comprehensive healthcare services.

2. Artemis Hospital (Gurugram):

Hospital Banner

  • Location: Sector 51, Gurugram, Haryana 122001, India.
  • Established Year: 2007

Hospital Overview :

  • Artemis Hospital, established in 2007, is a state-of-the-art multi-specialty hospital located in Gurgaon, India, spread across 9 acres.
  • It is a 400 plus bed hospital and is the first JCI (Joint Commission International) and NABH (National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Providers) accredited hospital in Gurgaon.
  • Designed to be one of the most advanced hospitals in India, Artemis offers a wide range of advanced medical and surgical interventions along with a comprehensive mix of inpatient and outpatient services.
  • The hospital employs modern technology and follows research-oriented medical practices and procedures benchmarked against global standards.
  • Artemis Hospital is known for its top-notch services, warm and patient-centric environment, and affordability.
  • In 2011, it received the 'Asia Pacific Hand Hygiene Excellence Award' from WHO (World Health Organization).
  • The hospital excels in various medical specialties including cardiology, CTVS (Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery) Surgery, neurology, neurosurgery, Neuro interventional, oncology, Surgical Oncology, orthopedics, Spine Surgery, Organ Transplants, General Surgery, emergency care, Women & child care, and more.

3. Fortis Memorial Research Institute (Gurugram)

Hospital Banner

  • Location: Sector - 44, Opposite HUDA City Centre, Gurgaon, Haryana - 122002, India
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute (FMRI) is a multi-super specialty, quaternary care hospital.
  • It boasts an international faculty, reputed clinicians, super-sub-specialists, and specialty nurses.
  • The hospital is known for utilizing cutting-edge technology to provide advanced medical care.
  • FMRI aims to be the 'Mecca of Healthcare' for Asia Pacific and beyond.
  • The hospital is situated on a spacious 11-acre campus and offers 1000 beds.
  • It is often referred to as the 'Next Generation Hospital' and is built on the pillars of Talent, Technology, Infrastructure, and Service.
  • FMRI has undergone a thorough on-site review of the quality and safety of care provided, and it is committed to continuously meeting rigorous international standards.
  • FMRI is unmatched in the fields of Neurosciences, Oncology, Renal Sciences, Orthopedics, Cardiac Sciences, Obstetrics, and Gynecology.
  • It has solidified its position as one of the top hospitals in Gurgaon by leveraging advanced technology and top clinicians to deliver high-quality healthcare.
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute is a flagship hospital of Fortis Healthcare, one of the leading healthcare providers in the country.
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute in Gurgaon is known for its exceptional healthcare services, advanced technology, and a wide range of medical specialties. It is committed to providing top-notch medical care and adhering to international standards of quality and safety.

  • Location: 21 Greams Lane, Off, Greams Road, Thousand Lights, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600006, India
  • Established Year - 1983

Hospital Overview:

  • Apollo Hospitals, established in 1983 by Dr. Prathap C Reddy, is credited with pioneering the private healthcare revolution in India.
  • Integrated Healthcare Services: The hospital is Asia's leading integrated healthcare services provider with a presence across the healthcare ecosystem, including Hospitals, Pharmacies, Primary Care & Diagnostic Clinics.
  • Telemedicine and More: The Apollo Group operates Telemedicine units in 10 countries, offers Health Insurance Services, provides Global Projects Consultancy, runs Medical Colleges and Med-varsity for E-Learning, and operates Colleges of Nursing and Hospital Management.
  • Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery: Apollo Hospitals has around 14 world-class institutes, over 400 cardiologists & cardiac surgeons, and 200 heart stations.
  • Robotic Spinal Surgery: The hospital is among the few centers in Asia to perform Robotic Spinal Surgery.
  • Cancer Care: A 300-bedded, NABH accredited hospital with advanced technology for diagnosis and radiation, renowned specialists, and a skilled team of medical and paramedical professionals.
  • Endoscopic Procedures: Offering the latest Endoscopic procedures for Gastrointestinal conditions.
  • Transplant Institutes: The Apollo Transplant Institutes (ATI) are one of the largest and comprehensive solid transplant programs globally.
  • Advanced Technology: The hospital features a 320 slice CT scanner, a state-of-the-art Liver Intensive Care Unit & Operation Theatre, and various surgical tools for safe & bloodless liver surgery.
  • Corporate Health Care: Apollo Hospitals is a key player in the corporate healthcare sector. Over 500 leading corporates, across all industries, have partnered with Apollo Hospitals.
  • Accessible Healthcare: The corporate services initiative aims to provide world-standard healthcare accessible to every individual with over 64 locations in India.

Top doctors for Colorectal Cancer Treatment

1. Dr Harit Chaturvedi

Designation: Chairman, Cancer Care

Consults at : Max Healthcare Saket

a. Professional Information:

  • Designation: Chairman, Cancer Care
  • Current Experience: Chairman, Max Institute of Oncology, and Director, Surgical Oncology, Max Healthcare.
  • Previous Experience:
    • Senior Consultant, Surgical Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre.
    • Senior Consultant, Surgical Oncology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital.
  • Experience Years: 25

b. Medical Education:

  • M.B.B.S & M.S.-G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur, India
  • M.Ch. (Surgical Oncology)—Dr. – Dr. M.G.R Medical University, Chennai, India

c. Clinical Approach:

  • Dr. Chaturvedi started his oncology career at the Cancer Institute, Adyar (Chennai).
  • Known for performing surgeries at live surgical workshops.
  • Focus on quality care through initiatives like virtual Tumour boards.
  • Drives sub-specialty build-up across Max Healthcare centers.

d. Oncology Vision:

  • Dr. Chaturvedi plays a key role in the ambitious oncology vision at Max Healthcare.
  • Strong focus on people, processes, and systems.
  • Contribution to clinical quality processes, clinician recruitment, and long-term vision and strategy for the group.
  • Widely respected for clinical and surgical skills.
  • Contribution to Max Healthcare's long-term vision and strategy.

2. Dr. Vedant Kabra

Designation: Principal Director, Onco-Surgery

Consultation Location: Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon

Dr. Vedant Kabra

a. Professional Experience:

  • Experience: 15+ years
  • Specialization: Surgical Oncology

b. Medical Education:

  • Medical Degree: Completed medical education from top-ranked medical colleges in India.
  • Further Training: Pursued training in Surgical Oncology from prestigious institutions in India and the United States.

c. Clinical Expertise:

Expertise in various cancer surgeries, including:

  • Breast Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Gastrointestinal Cancer
  • Urological Cancer
  • Known for expertise in minimally invasive and laparoscopic cancer surgeries.

d. Professional Affiliations:

  • Member of several professional organizations.
  • Active participation in cancer research projects.
  • Publication of papers in national and international medical journals.

e. Awards and Recognitions:

  • "Best Paper Award": Annual conference of the Indian Association of Surgical Oncology.
  • "Young Surgeon Travel Grant": American Society of Clinical Oncology.
  • "Surgical Excellence Award": Fortis Memorial Research Institute for exceptional surgical skills and patient care.
  • Recognized as a "Top Doctor" in surgical oncology by a leading healthcare publication.

f. Patient Commitment:

  • Commitment to providing the highest quality of care to patients.
  • Dedicated to improving cancer treatment outcomes.

g. Areas of interest:

Surgical Management of Cancer, with a focus on:

  • Breast Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Gastrointestinal Cancer
  • Urological Cancer.

3. Dr Ashok Kumar Vaid

Designation: Chairman - Medical and Haemato Oncology, Cancer Institute

Consultation Location: Medanta - The Medicity, Gurgaon

Dr Ashok Kumar Vaid

a. Professional Experience:

  • Experience: 30+ years

b. Medical Education:

  • Govt. Medical College, Jammu
  • Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai
  • MD in General Medicine (1989)
  • DM in Medical Oncology (1993)

c. Clinical Expertise:

  • Renowned oncologist and hematologist.
  • Pioneered the first 25 bone marrow transplants in India.
  • Expertise in organ-specific cancer treatment, leukemia, solid tumors, and lymphomas.

d. Contributions to Cancer Research:

  • Conducted over 40 international and national studies.
  • Significant advancements in cancer treatment.
  • Widely published research in various medical journals.

e. Treatments Offered:

  • Organ-Specific Cancer Treatment
  • Leukemias
  • Solid Tumours
  • Lymphomas

f. Specific Cancer Focus:

  • Colon Cancer Treatment offered starting from $6,000

g. Awards and Accolades:

  • Padma Shri Award, 2009
  • Chikitsa Shiromani Award, 2007
  • Unique distinction of the first 25 bone marrow transplants in any private sector hospital in North India.

h. Cancer Awareness and Education:

  • Actively involved in promoting cancer awareness and education.
  • Organized numerous seminars, workshops, and conferences.

i. Personal Recognition:

  • Honored with the prestigious Padma Shri Award.
  • :Dr. Ashok Kumar Vaid is an exceptional oncologist and hematologist with a distinguished career dedicated to providing high-quality care to cancer patients.
  • His groundbreaking contributions to cancer research and education have earned him prestigious awards and accolades.
  • Dr. Vaid continues to inspire the medical community with his commitment to improving the lives of individuals affected by cancer.

4. Dr. B Niranjan Naik

Designation: Director - Surgical Oncology
Consultation Location: Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon

Dr. B Niranjan Naik

a. Professional Experience:

  • Experience: 21+ years

b. Clinical Expertise:

  • Renowned senior surgical oncologist.
  • Over 12,000 onco-surgical operations since 1996.
  • Expertise in various onco-surgical operations, including laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures.
  • Proficient in diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures.

c. Contributions to Research and Education:

  • Invited faculty at various international and national conferences.
  • Published numerous papers and research articles in journals of national and international repute.
  • Guide and mentor to DNB Surgical Oncology training program.

d. Interest in Advancements in Oncology:

  • Keen interest in advancements in oncology.
  • Investigator in a phase III clinical trial.
  • Dr. B Niranjan Naik is a highly regarded senior surgical oncologist with over two decades of experience.
  • His extensive surgical experience includes a wide range of onco-surgical operations, with proficiency in laparoscopic, thoracoscopic, and endoscopic procedures.
  • Dr. Naik has actively contributed to research, education, and advancements in oncology, making him a respected figure in the medical community.

Treatment options for Colorectal Cancer in India

1. Surgery for Colorectal Cancer:

Surgery is a common and often primary treatment for colorectal cancer, particularly in its early stages. It involves the physical removal of cancerous tissues and, in some cases, surrounding tissues and lymph nodes. The type of surgery performed depends on the location, size, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health.

Types of Surgical Procedures

1. Polypectomy and Local Excision: During a colonoscopy, small polyps (which may potentially turn into cancer) are removed. If the cancer is small, local excision may be done to remove it along with a small amount of surrounding healthy tissue.
2. Partial Colectomy: This procedure involves removing part of the colon or rectum that contains the cancer, along with a margin of normal tissue on either side of the cancer. Nearby lymph nodes are often removed and tested for cancer.
3. Total Colectomy: In cases where the cancer is more extensive, or if there are multiple polyps, the entire colon may be removed.
4. Laparoscopic Surgery: This minimally invasive surgery involves small incisions and the use of special instruments and a camera to remove the cancerous parts of the colon. It often results in quicker recovery and less pain compared to open surgery.
5. Colostomy: For some rectal cancers, a colostomy may be necessary. This involves creating an opening in the abdominal wall for waste to pass into a bag, which can be temporary or permanent depending on the extent of the disease.

Why is Surgery Performed?

  • Remove Cancer: The primary goal is to remove as much of the cancer as possible.
  • Prevent Spread: By removing the tumor and nearby lymph nodes, surgery aims to prevent the spread or recurrence of cancer.
  • Alleviate Symptoms: In advanced cases, surgery might be used to relieve or prevent blockage of the colon and improve symptoms.
  • Diagnostic Purposes: Surgery can also help in staging the cancer (determining how far it has spread).

Colorectal cancer surgery is a critical intervention for effectively treating this type of cancer. The procedure varies depending on the cancer's stage and location. A detailed understanding of the surgical procedure is essential for patients and caregivers.

Procedure for Colorectal Cancer Surgery

a. Preoperative Preparation

  • Bowel Preparation: Cleansing the intestines, typically through a prescribed diet and laxatives.
  • Antibiotics: Administered to reduce the risk of postoperative infections.
  • Pre-Surgery Evaluation: Including blood tests, imaging studies, and a thorough physical examination to assess fitness for surgery.
  • Fasting: Patients are usually required to fast for a specific period before the surgery to reduce the risk of complications during anesthesia.

b. Anesthesia

  • General Anesthesia: Ensures the patient is unconscious and pain-free. An anesthesiologist monitors vital signs throughout the procedure.

c. Surgical Approach

  • Open Surgery: Involves a large incision in the abdomen to access the colon or rectum.
  • Laparoscopic Surgery: Uses several small incisions, through which a camera and surgical tools are inserted. Offers the benefits of less postoperative pain and quicker recovery.

d. Tumor Removal

  • Resection: The surgeon excises the portion of the colon or rectum containing the tumor, along with healthy margins to ensure complete removal.
  • Lymph Node Removal: Nearby lymph nodes are often removed and sent for pathological examination to check for cancer spread.

e. Reconstruction

  • Reconnecting the Bowel: The surgeon sutures the remaining sections of the colon or rectum back together.
  • Colostomy: In some cases, especially with lower rectal tumors, a colostomy may be required. This involves creating an opening (stoma) on the abdomen for waste elimination into a colostomy bag.

f. Recovery

  • Hospital Stay: Usually lasts a few days to a week, depending on the type of surgery and the patient’s recovery.
  • Pain Management: Controlled through medications.
  • Preventing Infections: With proper wound care and sometimes antibiotics.
  • Diet: Initially liquid, gradually progressing to solid foods as bowel function returns.
  • Physical Activity: Gradual increase in activity is encouraged to enhance recovery.
  • Follow-up: Regular check-ups to monitor recovery and address any complications.

Colorectal cancer surgery is a significant but often necessary step in the treatment journey. A detailed understanding of the procedure aids in preparation and recovery, contributing to better outcomes. Patients should maintain open communication with their healthcare team to ensure the best possible care before, during, and after the surgery.

2. . Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy is a medical procedure that employs high-energy X-rays or other forms of radiation to target and destroy cancer cells.

Radiation therapy is a crucial component of the treatment plan for colorectal cancer for various reasons:

  • Shrinking Tumors Before Surgery: In cases of locally advanced rectal cancer, radiation therapy may be used before surgery (neoadjuvant therapy) with the goal of reducing the size of the tumor, making it more operable, and potentially increasing the chances of a successful surgical outcome.
  • Reducing the Risk of Local Recurrence: After surgery for rectal cancer, radiation therapy may be administered (adjuvant therapy) to reduce the risk of cancer returning in the same area, particularly when there is a higher risk of residual cancer cells.
  • Relieving Symptoms: In advanced cases of colorectal cancer where a cure may not be achievable, radiation therapy can be utilized to alleviate symptoms such as pain, bleeding, or obstruction caused by the tumor. This palliative approach aims to improve the patient's quality of life.

There are two primary methods of delivering radiation therapy:

  • External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT): This technique involves directing high-energy X-rays or radiation beams at the cancerous tissue from outside the body. Patients typically receive daily treatments over several weeks. The radiation is carefully targeted to minimize damage to surrounding healthy tissue.
  • Brachytherapy: In some cases, a radioactive source is placed directly into or near the tumor. This method is called brachytherapy and can be used for rectal cancer. Brachytherapy allows for precise delivery of radiation to the tumor while sparing nearby healthy tissues.

The choice between external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy depends on the patient's specific diagnosis, tumor location, and the stage of cancer. Radiation therapy is often administered as part of a multidisciplinary approach in collaboration with surgeons, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists to provide the most effective and personalized treatment for colorectal cancer patients.

3. Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer:

Chemotherapy is a systemic cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth. These drugs can be delivered throughout the body via the bloodstream, making it effective against cancer cells that may have spread from the primary tumor.

Chemotherapy is employed in the treatment of colorectal cancer for several reasons, including:

  • Advanced or Metastatic Disease: When colorectal cancer has spread to distant organs (metastatic disease), chemotherapy is often used as the primary treatment to slow cancer growth, control symptoms, and extend survival.
  • Neoadjuvant Treatment: In some cases, chemotherapy is administered before surgery (neoadjuvant therapy) to shrink tumors, making them more manageable and increasing the likelihood of a successful surgical outcome.
  • Adjuvant Treatment: After surgery for colorectal cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy may be recommended to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence by targeting any remaining cancer cells.
  • Systemic Spread: Colorectal cancer can sometimes spread to lymph nodes or distant organs. Chemotherapy helps target and eliminate cancer cells in these locations.
  • Combination Therapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with other treatments, such as radiation therapy or targeted therapy, to improve treatment outcomes.

Chemotherapy drugs can be administered through different methods:

  • Intravenous (IV) Infusion: Many chemotherapy drugs are given directly into a vein through an IV line. This allows for precise and controlled drug delivery.
  • Oral Medications: Some chemotherapy drugs come in the form of pills or capsules, allowing patients to take them by mouth at home.
  • Treatment Cycles: Chemotherapy is typically administered in cycles, consisting of a treatment phase followed by a rest period. This rest period allows the body to recover from potential side effects. The specific regimen and duration depend on the patient's condition and the drugs used.

Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer often involves the use of combination therapy, where different drugs with distinct mechanisms of action are given together. This approach aims to maximize the effectiveness of treatment and reduce the risk of cancer cells developing resistance to the drugs.

It's essential to note that chemotherapy can be associated with side effects, which can vary from person to person. Patients receiving chemotherapy should work closely with their healthcare team to manage these side effects and monitor treatment response. The choice of chemotherapy drugs and regimen is made based on the individual patient's condition and stage of cancer.

4. Immunotherapy:

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that harnesses the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. It uses drugs known as immune checkpoint inhibitors to stimulate or enhance the immune response against cancer.

Immunotherapy is considered for colorectal cancer patients in specific situations, including:

  • Microsatellite Instability-High (MSI-H) or Mismatch Repair Deficiency (dMMR): Patients with these genetic characteristics may be candidates for immunotherapy, as these mutations can lead to a higher number of mutations within the tumor, making it more vulnerable to immune attack.
  • Lack of Response to Other Treatments: Immunotherapy is also an option for patients who have not responded to other treatments, such as chemotherapy or targeted therapy.

Immunotherapy drugs are typically administered intravenously (IV) as infusions. The treatment schedule varies, but it may involve periodic sessions, usually given every few weeks. The goal of immunotherapy is to activate the patient's immune system to recognize and target cancer cells effectively.

Common Immunotherapy Drugs: In the context of colorectal cancer, two common immunotherapy drugs include:

  • Pembrolizumab: This drug is an immune checkpoint inhibitor that targets the PD-1 protein on immune cells. It is used in patients with MSI-H or dMMR colorectal cancer.
  • Nivolumab: Like pembrolizumab, nivolumab is another PD-1 inhibitor used for certain colorectal cancer patients, particularly those with MSI-H or dMMR.

Immunotherapy has shown promise in colorectal cancer, particularly for patients with the specific genetic mutations mentioned above. It works by "unmasking" cancer cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. The treatment can result in durable responses and improved outcomes in some cases. However, not all patients with colorectal cancer will be candidates for immunotherapy, and its effectiveness can vary from person to person. Treatment decisions should be made in consultation with healthcare providers who can assess eligibility and develop a personalized treatment plan.

5. Targeted Therapy:

Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs designed to specifically target certain molecules or pathways involved in the growth and survival of cancer cells. Unlike chemotherapy, which affects both healthy and cancerous cells, targeted therapy aims to block specific proteins or signaling pathways that contribute to cancer growth.

Targeted therapies are used in colorectal cancer for specific scenarios, including:

  • KRAS or BRAF Mutations: Certain patients with colorectal cancer have mutations in genes like KRAS or BRAF, which drive cancer growth. Targeted therapies can inhibit these mutated pathways, potentially slowing down or stopping cancer progression.
  • Advanced or Metastatic Disease: Targeted therapies are often employed in combination with chemotherapy to improve treatment outcomes in cases of advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. This combination can help control the disease and extend survival.

Targeted therapy drugs are typically administered intravenously (IV), although some may be available in oral form. The treatment regimen is determined based on the patient's genetic profile and overall health. Common targeted therapy drugs used for colorectal cancer include cetuximab, panitumumab, regorafenib, and others. These drugs are designed to interfere with specific proteins or signaling pathways, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), involved in cancer cell growth.

6. Palliative Care:

Specialized medical care focused on symptom management and improving the quality of life for patients with advanced cancer. Why: Palliative care helps alleviate pain, manage symptoms, and provide emotional and psychological support for patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. Procedure: Palliative care is provided by a team of healthcare professionals, including pain specialists, nurses, and psychologists. It may involve medication adjustments, counseling, and support services, all tailored to the individual's needs and goals.

Latest Advances in Treatment options for Colorectal Cancer in India

  • Chemotherapy: Advances in chemotherapy for colorectal cancer involve more targeted approaches. Chemotherapy drugs can be tailored to target specific genetic mutations found in the tumor, maximizing their effectiveness while minimizing side effects.
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy techniques, such as proton therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), have become more precise. These advanced methods deliver radiation directly to the tumor, sparing healthy tissues. This reduces side effects and enhances treatment outcomes.
  • Surgery: Minimally Invasive Surgery: Minimally invasive surgical techniques, including laparoscopy and robotic-assisted surgery, have evolved with improved instruments and enhanced imaging technology. Surgeons can perform complex colorectal resections with smaller incisions, shorter hospital stays, and faster recoveries.
  • Immunotherapy: Expanding Immunotherapy Options: Immunotherapy drugs like pembrolizumab and nivolumab are continually being studied in clinical trials to expand their use in treating colorectal cancer. Research is ongoing to identify patient populations that can benefit the most from these therapies.
  • Targeted Therapies: Emerging Targeted Agents: Researchers are working on the development of new targeted therapies, often combined with traditional chemotherapy, to combat drug resistance and improve overall treatment response.
  • Genomic Profiling: Comprehensive Genomic Profiling: Genomic profiling of colorectal cancer tumors now includes more comprehensive genetic testing, allowing oncologists to identify rare mutations and tailor treatment accordingly.

Cost of colorectal cancer treatment in India

On average, the cost of colorectal cancer treatment in India can range from approximately $5,000 to $20,000 or more for early-stage cases, including surgery and follow-up care. For advanced-stage cases requiring surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and possibly targeted therapies or immunotherapies, the average cost can vary significantly and may range from $20,000 to $50,000 or more.

Please keep in mind that these are rough average estimates and the actual cost can vary widely depending on the specific treatment plan, the choice of healthcare facility, and individual patient factors.

In conclusion, India offers a comprehensive and advanced approach to colorectal cancer treatment, combining cost-effective medical care with access to skilled professionals and a range of modern therapies. This holistic healthcare environment emphasizes early detection, personalized treatment, and an integration of various medical resources, ensuring better outcomes for patients.

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Early signs of colorectal cancer include rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits (like diarrhea or constipation), abdominal discomfort, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and iron-deficiency anemia. It's important to consult a doctor if these symptoms persist.